Category: creatures great & small


A group of alligators is called a congregation.

Hallelujah!

A group of caterpillars is called an army.

Left right left!

A group of crows is called a murder.

In the study, with a candlestick.

A group of dolphins is called a pod.

Two peas.

A group of giraffes is called a tower.

Towering over the land.

A group of  hippopotamuses is called a bloat.

They DO look a little puffy...

A group of hummingbirds is called a charm.

Charming, ain't they?

A group of lizards is called a lounge.

Just lounging around...

A group of mice is called a mischief.

Up to no good!

A group of owls is called a parliament.

Question period.

A group of porcupines is called a prickle.

Ouch!

Learn More!

EnchantedLearning.com: Names of Males, Females, Babies, and Groups of Animals

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Bioluminescence is light that comes from a living organism, caused by a chemical reaction. The phenomenon is seen in a few land organisms, such as glowing fungus on wood, and insects like fireflies. But it is mostly seen in sea creatures living in the largest habitual place on earth: the deep sea.  

Did you know that 90% of the ocean’s volume is invisible to humans? It extends to such great depths that it is a world of almost complete darkness. In fact, we know more about the moon than the deepest part of our own oceans! In many ways it is more dangerous for humans to explore than outer space. The pressure of all that water (about 10,911 meters or more than 6.5 miles at its deepest point) is incredible.  

You might think that no creature could possibly thrive under such crushing weight and lack of oxygen. In fact, the complete opposite is true. The deep ocean is full of strange sea creatures which have adapted to this volatile environment. About 90% of deep sea life produce bioluminescence as a way of adapting to their dark world.  

There are different reasons for bioluminescence: some deep sea fish use it to lure prey; to scare predators away; to attract a mate; to communicate; or simply to illuminate the surrounding environment.  

Because the deep ocean is so difficult to study, scientists are constantly using new pressure-resistant machines and cameras to discover new sea species that produce bioluminescence. Some say the ocean is the true “last frontier”. Here are a few photos of just a few of the wonderful creatures we have already discovered. 

Crystal Jelly (Photo: Sierra Blakely)

Bathocyroe fosteri (Photo: Marsh Youngbluth)

’Barreleye’ Fish

Learn More!

The Bioluminescence Web Page

  Bioluminescence on Wikipedia.org 

 

There are many places on Earth that most of us will never have the opportunity to visit. Like Antarctica. Of course, there is no limit to the places on Earth and beyond that we can visit with our imagination. With no suitcases to pack, plane tickets to purchase or hotel rooms to book, an Imagination Vacation might not be so bad after all!

Antarctica is a little chilly, so let’s go somewhere a bit warmer. Let’s take a look at an island that most of us will never visit for ourselves: Canada’s Sable Island.

A satellite photo of Nova Scotia.

A satellite photo of Nova Scotia.

Sable Island is a tiny little sand bar located about 160 km southeast of Nova Scotia, on Canada’s East Coast. A sand bar is a landmass made up of sand; the word “sable”, in fact, is French for “sand”. Sable Island is 42 km long, and about 1 1/2 km at its widest point. From an airplane, it looks a little bit like a thumbnail!

A sattelite photo of Sable Island.

A satellite photo of Sable Island.

An even closer view.

An even closer view.

Once we get a little bit closer, we see that Sable Island is covered in beaches, sand dunes, grasses, and other low-lying plants. It is definitely warmer here than the Antarctic! Temperatures reach a pleasant 25°C at the peak of summer, and it only goes down to about -5°C in the winter. It’s windy, too! Sable Island’s shape is constantly changing due to strong winds and ocean storms.

Only five or so researchers live on the island year-round. Photographers and scientists sometimes come to visit in the summer months. It may be a bit of a lonely spot for humans, but not for the wildlife living here! Aside from hundreds of invertebrae and insects, over 330 species of birds have been spotted over Sable Island, with several species choosing to nest here. Five species of duck nest on the island as well. It is also home to Harbour and Grey Seals, and is frequently visited by large numbers of other species of seals.

Maybe you’re starting to wonder why we would ever want to visit this sandy little thumbnail, even on an Imagination Vacation. There are lots of other places we can go to see sand and birds and ducks and seals. Well, it just so happens that Sable Island is famous for some very special inhabitants: We’ve come here to see the island’s wild horses, peacefully grazing along the sand dunes and beaches.

A group of Sable Island horses graze near a pond.

A group of Sable Island horses graze near a pond.

Courtesy: Sable Island  Green Horse Society

Courtesy: Sable Island Green Horse Society

Sable Island is home to about 300 beautiful wild horses. They are among the very few wild horse populations that humans do not interfere with in any way. But where did the Sable Island horses come from in the first place?

A popular myth is that these horses are descended from shipwreck survivors. There have been about 350 recorded shipwrecks on Sable Island over the past few hundred years due to violent ocean storms and fog. Sable Island is sometimes called “The Graveyard of the Atlantic” for this reason. But the horses did not arrive this way.

Most evidence that we have today tells us that these horses are actually descendants of animals taken from the Acadians during the Great Expulsion in the mid-1700s and brought to Sable Island by a Boston merchant. He attempted to establish a farming settlement but was unsuccessful. The horses were left behind and continued to breed and thrive. Because the present-day horses are descendants of domesticated animals, it is much more accurate to say they are “feral” horses rather than “wild”.

Sable Horses

In the past, some of these horses would be rounded up and shipped off the island to be sold or used in Cape Breton coal mines. In 1962, the Canadian government gave full protection to the horse population from human interference. Now they are free to gallop the dunes and roam the seashore. What a wonderful place!

Think about just how much dirt one tiny little ant could possibly carry between its mandibles. Not much. Even the teeniest of tiny little ant-hills requires many worker ants to construct. Ants co-operate in nearly everything they do, from building the nest to hunting for food. Some species of ants will even form tiny little ant armies, invade neighboring colonies, and steal eggs to raise as slaves!

Ants are by no means the only kind of creature who we see co-operate for the betterment of the group. Let’s go to the one continent on Earth where ants have not established colonies, and find an example of co-operation there. Let’s go way, WAY down South, to Antarctica.

Antarctica from space.

Antarctica from space.

Welcome to the South Pole! Antarctica is the southernmost continent in the world, but there are no white sand beaches or warm waves in this southern getaway. Pack your snowsuit! 98% of Antarctica is covered in thick ice. It’s the coldest place on Earth. No wonder ants have stayed away!

A chilly view from an airplane as it flies over Antarctica.

A chilly view from an airplane window-seat as it flies over Antarctica.

As you can probably imagine, there are very few animals and plants who are adapted to Antarctica’s frigid, dry climate. Still, we don’t have to look very far to see co-operation. One animal in particular has been making news headlines lately. Let’s take a tiny little peak at a very special creature.

Penguins!

Penguins!

Emperor Penguins, to be exact. Their name suits them well. They are the world’s largest penguins, reaching a weight of up to 80 pounds. That’s a whole lotta penguin!

Emperor Penguins are well equipped to deal with the frigid temperatures of the Antarctic. Their waterproof feathers are more dense than any other bird – about 100 feathers per square inch. They also have a layer of thick down between these feathers and their skin. In addition, Emperor Penguins have adapted a way of increasing their metabolism in very low temperatures by moving around or shivering to maintain their core body temperature. All this helps a lot to protect the birds against the cold. But it isn’t always enough.

Just like ants, Emperor Penguins must co-operate with each other in order to survive. Large groups of individuals will huddle together and lean against one another to stay warm. They slowly shuffle themselves around so that everybody gets a turn to enjoy the warmest spot at the centre of the group.

An Emperor penguin colony in winter. Courtesy mtp@mtpa.org.uk.

An Emperor Penguin colony keeping warm. Courtesy mtp@mtpa.org.uk.

That’s a whole WHOLE lot of penguin!

By now you might be wondering what news headlines the Emperor Penguin has been making these days. Well, it isn’t really the Emperor Penguin itself making the headlines, but its poop! That’s right, their poop. Scientists have recently discovered new Emperor Penguin colonies that they never knew existed before, by studying satellite images of Antarctica taken from space. While they can’t see the penguins themselves on the satellite images, they CAN see their poop!! The penguin colonies are so large (sometimes hundreds of individuals huddle together), and they stay in the same spot for so long (up to 8 months a year) that their poop stains the ice a reddish brown that is visible from space.

This is great news for researchers interested in the Emperor Penguin. They are difficult animals to study because of the Antarctic’s harsh weather. Now, scientists can keep track of colonies, their movement, and possible changes to the population.

Of course, the penguins are just working together to stay warm. They have no idea how interested we are in their poop. Do  you suppose they would be embarrassed if they did?!

Embarrassed Emperor Penguin

Aw... shucks.

Stay tuned for more on co-operation in the animal kingdom in upcoming posts!

Why the ant-hill?

Ants are special creatures. They learn, remember, and correct mistakes. They communicate, live in complex societies,  and even teach eachother new skills. Sound like anyone you know? No wonder we humans throughout history have studied and compared ourselves to these tiny little insects.

We will re-visit this subject time and again. Our webspace would be nameless were it not for the ant, afterall. For now, let’s think about the ant-hill, and why on Earth a tiny little rather adorable one has found its way to the top of this page.

What is an ant-hill? An ant-hill is a pile of dirt and sand and pine needles. Of course, as usual, there’s much more going on than meets the eye. Let’s take a peak beneath the surface and see.

A plaster cast reveals the quarters of a typical Florida harvester ant colony. Neat, huh?
A plaster-cast reveals the innards of a typical Florida harvester ant colony. Neat.

An ant-hill is more than just a pile of dirt. It’s an underground mansion with big rooms and little rooms, long winding hallways and steep sets of stairs. It’s brilliant insect-architecture resulting from tireless work, careful planning, cooperation, and communication. The tiny little ant-hill we see at the surface is simply the dirt that worker ants carry to the surface in their mandibles and “spit out”.

The mandibles make the mound: little limbs near the ants mouth allow it to carry dirt to the surface, creating the ant-hill.

The mandibles make the mound: little limbs near the ant's mouth allow it to carry dirt to the surface, creating the ant-hill.

Would you believe the six-foot tall plaster-cast pictured above is mere chump change?! In some colonies, worker ants are not aggressive towards ants of other nearby nests and they mix and cooperate.  We’re not talking tiny little ant-hills anymore. When you’re this big, you’re a super colony. One of the largest super colonies discovered to-date is located under Melbourne in Australia and spans approximately 100 km! Whoa.

But that’s a different topic for a different day. We aren’t a huge and mighty super colony. Just a tiny little ant-hill. Keep on reading, and watch us grow!